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The demands of methods of effective remediation arising from the Vygotsky-Luria approach to the structure and development of higher mental functions are discussed. These demands suggest the structuring of a therapeutic interaction in accordance with the rules of the internalization process, taking into account a weak component of the child's functional systems and the emotional involvement of a child in that interaction. In order to provide a theoretical framework for developing methods of executive function remediation, the approaches of Vygotsky and Luria, as well as modern views on the structure and development of executive functions, are discussed. The Method of Numerical Sequence is presented as an example of the application of the general principles discussed above. The Method of Numerical Sequence provides a background for following the development of successive processing, programming and planning, and can be considered as a complement to the development of the metacognitive aspects of self-regulation. This method was verified experimentally in groups of 5-8-year-old children with intellectual disability.