Unnoticed post-void residual urine volume in people with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities: prevalence and risk factors

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BackgroundIncreased post-void residual urine volume (PVR) is often seen in geriatric populations. People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have risk factors in common with these populations.AimsTo investigate in adults with ID:Feasibility of portable ultrasound bladder scanning;Prevalence of PVR; andRelations with proposed risk factors for PVR.MethodsIn a cross-sectional design, PVR was measured using ultrasound scanning in 346 adults with moderate to severe ID aged 18–82 years. Relationship between increased PVR and the following risk factors was assessed: age, level of ID, gender, ambulancy, medication, chronic illnesses, incontinence and profound multiple disabilities (PMD). Acceptation of scanning and manageability were noted.ResultsFeasibility: All participants were cooperatively undergoing the ultrasound scan and all outcomes were sufficiently interpretable. Prevalence: PVR ≥ 150 mL was newly identified in 30/346 persons (8.7%, 95% confidence interval 5.92–12.14). Associations: Higher age (P = 0.001), laxative use (P = 0.001), chronic illnesses other than epilepsy (P = 0.005), profound ID (P = 0.008), incontinence (P = 0.048) and immobility (P = 0.005) are determinants that were associated with urinary retention.ConclusionsThe bladder ultrasound scan is a feasible method to identify increased PVR in adults with more severe levels of ID. The prevalence of PVR in adults is similar to prevalences found in the geriatric general population.

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