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Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common morbidity among surviving premature infants. Injury to the developing lung is the result of the interaction between a susceptible host and a number of contributing factors such as mechanical ventilation and infection. The resulting persistent impairment of pulmonary function and need for ongoing therapy are the underlying characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Important insights into the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia have led to numerous therapies and preventive approaches. Although significant progress has been made, in order to further affect the incidence and severity of the disease, we need to further study (a) the genetically determined predisposing factors, (b) the relative contribution of the various pathogenetic pathways, and most important, (c) how to best translate the knowledge gained from these studies into effective clinical approaches.