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Patients undergoing surgery for pituitary tumors represent a heterogeneous population each with unique clinical, biochemical, radiologic, pathologic, neurologic, and/or ophthalmologic considerations. The postoperative management of patients following pituitary surgery often occurs in the context of a dynamic state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis. Consequently, a significant component of the postoperative care of these patients focuses on vigilant screening and observation for neuroen-docrinologic perturbations such as varying degrees of hypopituitarism and disorders of water balance (diabetes insipidus and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone). Additionally, one must be cognizant of other potential complications specific to the transsphenoidal approach for tumor removal including cerebrospinal fluid leakage and meningitis. This review addresses the postoperative management of patients undergoing pituitary surgery with an emphasis on careful screening and recognition of complications.