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Therapeutic apheresis has been widely accepted in the treatment of neurological disorders that are understood to be mediated by humoral and/or cellular immunity. The clinical presumption is that well-established and/or unknown insults cause damage to nerves or their myelin sheaths. The rationale for apheresis treatments for these neurological disorders relates to removal of offending immune (or other) mediators, thus blunting the attack and permitting recovery of nerve and/or myelin. This review will concentrate on the role of therapeutic apheresis, in particular therapeutic plasma exchange, in neurological disorders that may frequently be seen by intensivists.