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There is a rapidly growing population of immuno-compromised organ transplant recipients. These patients are at risk of a large variety of infections that have significant consequences on mortality, graft dysfunction, and graft loss. The diagnosis and treatment of these infections are facilitated by an understanding of the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative risk factors; the typical pathogens; and their characteristic time of presentation. On the basis of these factors, we put forth an algorithm for diagnosing and treating suspected infections in solid organ transplant recipients.