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Early recognition and differentiation of shock, as well as goal-directed resuscitation, are fundamental principles in the care of the critically ill or injured patient. Substantial progress has been made over the last decade in the understanding of both shock and resuscitation. Specific areas of advancement, particularly pertaining to hemorrhagic shock, include a heightened appreciation of dynamic measurements of preload responsiveness (eg, respiratory-induced pulse pressure and venous diameter variability), an improved awareness of the detrimental effects of blood product transfusion, and better recognition of the complications of overzealous volume expansion. However, several areas of controversy remain regarding the optimal resuscitation strategy. These include the optimal targets for perfusion pressure and oxygen delivery, endpoints of resuscitation, resuscitative fluid, and transfusion strategies for packed red blood cells and blood products. This article reviews the diagnosis and differentiation of shock, measurements of tissue perfusion, current evidence regarding various resuscitative techniques, and complications of resuscitation.