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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has steadily increased in incidence since the 1990s, with an associated increase in recurrence and severity, which has in turn lead to more intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. The development of recurrent CDI, in particular, has been associated with increasing patient morbidity and mortality as well as an immense financial burden on the health care system. Recently, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has received much publicity as an effective means of treatment for recurrent CDI. The goal of this review is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of CDI, with a particular focus on FMT and its utilization in the ICU.