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Neurologic complications of cancer are common and are frequently life-threatening events. Certain neurologic emergencies occur more frequently in the cancer population, specifically elevated intracranial pressure, epidural cord compression, status epilepticus, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, central nervous system infection, and treatment-associated neurologic dysfunction. These emergencies require early diagnosis and prompt treatment to ensure the best possible outcome and are best managed in the intensive care unit. This article reviews the presentation, pathophysiology, and management of the most common causes of acute neurologic decompensation in the patient with cancer.