Hospital Length of Stay Among Patients Receiving Intermittent Versus Prolonged Piperacillin/Tazobactam Infusion in the Intensive Care Units

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Objectives:We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes of intensive care unit (ICU) patients following a hospital-wide initiative of prolonged piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) infusion.Methods:Retrospective observational study of patients >18 years old who was hospitalized in the ICU receiving PIP/TAZ for >72 hours during the preimplementation (June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011) and postimplementation (July 7, 2011 to June 30, 2014) periods.Results:There were 124 and 429 patients who met inclusion criteria with average age of 54.3 and 56.9 years, and average duration of PIP/TAZ therapy was 6.1 ± 2.8 days and 5.9 ± 3.4 days in the pre- and postimplementation period, respectively. Intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (LOS) following initiation of PIP/TAZ were 8.0 ± 8.4 days versus 6.4 ± 6.8 days and 26.3 ± 22.8 days versus 20.4 ± 16.1 days among patients in the pre- and postimplementation periods, respectively. Compared to patients who received intermittent PIP/TAZ infusion, the adjusted difference in ICU and hospital LOS was 0.6 ± 0.8 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.9 to 2.1 days) and 5.6 ± 2.1 days (95% CI: 1.4 - 9.7 days) shorter among patients who received prolonged PIP/TAZ infusion. At hospital discharge, 19 (15.3%) intermittent infusion and 74 (17.2%) prolonged infusion recipients had died. In comparison to intermittent infusion recipients, the adjusted odds ratio for mortality was 1.17 (95% CI: 0.65-2.1) with prolonged infusion.Conclusion:Our study demonstrated a reduction in hospital LOS with prolonged PIP/TAZ infusion among critically ill patients. Randomized trials are needed to further validate these findings.

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