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Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) are commonly seen in severe sepsis and septic shock; however, their role in patients with concurrent invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is less well defined.This was a prospective observational study on all patients admitted to all the intensive care units (ICUs) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from August 2007 to January 2009. All adult patients with severe sepsis and septic shock and concurrent IMV without prior heart failure underwent transthoracic echocardiography within 24 hours. Patients with active pregnancy, prior congenital or valvular heart disease, and prosthetic cardiac valves were excluded. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% and LVDD as E/e′ >15. Primary outcome was hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes included IMV duration, ICU length of stay (LOS), and total LOS. Two-tailed P value of <.05 was considered statistically significant.In a total of 106 patients, 58 (54.7%) met our inclusion criteria, with 17 (29.3%), 11 (19.0%), and 5 (8.6%) having LVSD, LVDD, and both, respectively. The cohorts with and without LVSD and LVDD did not differ significantly in their baseline characteristics and laboratory and ventilatory parameters. Compared to those without LVSD, patients with LVSD had higher LV end-systolic diameters but were not different in their left atrial diameters or E/e′ ratio. Patients with LVDD had a higher E velocity and E/e′ ratio compared to those without LVDD. Hospital mortality was not different in patients with and without LVSD (8 [47%] vs 21 [51%], P = 1.00) and LVDD (8 [73%] vs 21 [45%], P = .18). Secondary outcomes were not different between the 2 groups.Left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction did not influence in-hospital outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock and concurrent IMV.