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Patients undergoing vascular surgery are prone to perioperative organ injury because of both higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of surgery. Early detection of organ failure is essential to facilitate appropriate medical care. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) has been investigated in acute medical care settings to guide clinical decision-making regarding patient pathways and to identify patients prone to imminent cardiovascular or inflammatory complications. In this study, we evaluated the impact of perioperative MR-proADM levels as an early marker of perioperative cardiovascular and inflammatory stress reactions and kidney injury.The study was conducted as a monocentric, prospective, noninterventional trial at Hannover Medical School, Germany. A total of 454 consecutive patients who underwent open vascular surgery were followed from the day prior to until 30 days after surgery. The composite primary end point was defined as the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), acute kidney injury (AKI), or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Measurements were correlated with both medical history and postoperative MACE, AKI, or SIRS using univariate and multivariate regression analysis.One hundred thirty-nine (31%) of the patients reached the primary end point within the study interval. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin change was associated with the combined primary end point and with the intensity of surgical trauma. Midregional pro-adrenomedullin change was increased in patients reaching the secondary end points, SIRS (optimal cutoff: 0.2 nmol/L) and AKI (optimal cutoff: 0.7 nmol/L), but not in patients with MACEs.Increased levels of MR-proADM within the perioperative setting (1) were linked to the invasiveness of surgery and (2) identified patients with ongoing loss of renal function. Increased MR-proADM levels may therefore identify a subgroup of patients prone to excessive cardiovascular stress but did not directly correlate with adverse cardiac events. Consistently low levels of MR-proADM may identify a subgroup of patients with acceptable low risk to guide discharge from high-density care units.