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To evaluate risk factors for hemolysis in pediatric extracorporeal life support.Retrospective, single-center study.Pediatric intensive care unit.Two hundred thirty-six children who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.None.Risk factors for hemolysis were retrospectively analyzed from a single center in a total of 236 neonatal and pediatric patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO). There was no difference in the incidence of hemolysis between centrifugal (127 patients) and roller head (109 patients) pump type or between venoarterial and venovenous ECMO. High hemoglobin (Hb) was found to be an independent risk factor for hemolysis in both pump types. The Hb level >12 g/dL was significant in the roller group and the Hb level >13 g/dL was significant in the centrifugal group for the development of hemolysis for the cumulative ECMO run. The presence of high Hb levels on any given day increased the risk of hemolysis for that day of the ECMO run regardless of ECMO pump type. Higher revolutions per minute (RPMs) and higher inlet pressures on any given day increased the risk for the development of hemolysis in the centrifugal pump. Lower inlet venous pressures and RPMs were not associated with hemolysis in the roller group.An Hb level greater than 13 g/dL was associated with an increased risk of hemolysis, and a high Hb on a given day was associated with a significantly higher risk of hemolysis on the same day. Higher RPMs and lower inlet venous pressures were associated with an increased risk of hemolysis in the centrifugal pump only.