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Study of inflammatory biomarkers which may aid in early detection of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in children and predicting their outcome.Thirty-five children, aged 2 months to 13 years, needed mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours due to causes other than pneumonia.Measurement of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP), modified clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) and performing culture of endotracheal aspirate at the start and on the third day of MV.Ventilator-associated pneumonia was diagnosed by CPIS in 6 (17.1%) of 35 patients. On the third day of MV, there was a significant increase in serum mean levels of SAA, sICAM-1, and CRP in comparison to the start of MV (P = .005, .004, and .01, respectively). Three (50%) of 6 patients with VAP died, while 4 (14.28%) of 28 patients without VAP died. The sensitivity of serum SAA, sICAM-1, and CPIS were 100% for predicting VAP, while specificity was highest for CPIS (96.55%) followed by SAA (93.1%). Combination of CPIS and SAA increased the specificity to 100%. For predicting nonsurvival, serum SAA and sICAM-1 had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92.86% and 89.29%, respectively.Serum amyloid A and sICAM-1 may be considered as reliable markers for detection of VAP. Combination of serum SAA with CPIS increased the specificity to 100%. Measurement of SAA in patients with VAP also had a good predictive value for nonsurvival in such patients.