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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been increasingly used in the treatment of refractory cardiac arrest (extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation [ECPR]) and postarrest cardiogenic shock (PACS). Our primary objective was to determine the 1-year survival of patients who were treated with ECMO for PACS or in ECPR.We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients in a tertiary care facility who underwent treatment with ECMO for ECPR or PACS. Between January 2004 and December 2013, patients were prospectively entered into an institutional registry. One-year follow-up was assessed by electronic medical record or social security death index if clinical follow-up was unavailable.Fifty-one patients were treated with ECMO during the study period. The mean age was 54.0 ± 10.9 years; the majority of patients were men (80.4%). The most common etiology of arrest was acute myocardial infarction (51.0%). Overall, 13 (25.4%) patients survived for at least 1 year. Preexisting coronary artery disease, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia were associated with reduced likelihood of survival. We observed a significant improvement in 1-year mortality in patients treated for PACS when compared to ECPR, 46.7% versus 16.7%, respectively.The use of ECMO for treatment of refractory cardiac arrest or cardiogenic shock may be a suitable treatment in a very select cohort of patients. Our results support a significantly higher 1-year survival in patients with PACS compared to refractory cardiac arrest.