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The development of acute kidney injury in the setting of liver disease is a significant event both before and after liver transplant. Whether acute kidney injury is the cause of or merely associated with worse outcomes, the development of renal failure is significant from a prognostic as well as from a diagnostic and therapeutic standpoint. Although not every etiology is reversible, there are number of etiologies that are correctable, to include hypovolemia, nephrotoxic medications, and acute tubular necrosis. In the post-liver transplant period, renal failure is associated with graft failure as well as worse outcomes overall. Prompt recognition, workup, and intervention can significantly impact outcomes and survival both before and after liver transplant.