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Target temperature management (TTM) and extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) have been established as important interventions during cardiopulmonary arrest. However, the impact of combined TTM and ECPR on clinical outcomes has not been studied in detail.We reviewed the records of 245 patients who received extracorporeal life support (ECLS) between January 2012 and June 2015. Exclusion criteria were as follows: Extracorporeal life support performed for reasons other than cardiac arrest, age less than 18 years, and death within 24 hours. A total of 101 patients were finally included in the study. Twenty-five patients underwent TTM, and 76 patients did not.The patients’ mean age was 55 ± 16.7 years. The mean cardiac arrest time was 44.6 ± 33.5 minutes. There were 84 patients whose cardiac arrest was due to a cardiac cause (83.2%) and 79 patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (78.2%). There was a significant difference in average body temperature during the first 24 hours following ECPR (33.4°C vs 35.6°C; P = .001). The overall favorable neurological outcome rate was 34% and hospital survival rate was 47%. There was no difference in favorable neurological outcomes and hospital survival between the TTM and non-TTM groups (P = .91 and .84, respectively). On multivariate analysis of neurological outcomes and hospital survival, TTM was not a significant prognostic factor.We did not observe any benefits of TTM in patients undergoing ECPR. Natural hypothermia or normothermia related to ECLS may explain this result. Further research is needed to understand the role of TTM in ECPR.