Management Strategies for Intracranial Pressure Crises in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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Objectives: Standard management strategies for lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury has been well-studied, but the use of lesser known interventions for ICP in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains elusive. Searches were performed in PubMed and EBSCO Host to identify best available evidence for evaluation and management of medically refractory ICP in SAH. The role of standard management strategies such as head elevation, hyperventilation, mannitol and hypertonic saline as well as lesser known management such as sodium bicarbonate, indomethacin, tromethamine, decompressive craniectomy, decompressive laparotomy, hypothermia, and barbiturate coma are reviewed. We also included dose concentrations, dose frequency, infusion volume, and infusion rate for these lesser known strategies. Nonetheless, there is still a gap in the evidence to recommend optimal dosing, timing and its role in the improvement of outcomes but early diagnosis and appropriate management reduce adverse outcomes.

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