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DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the several enzyme systems involved in DNA homeostasis. DNA MMR is involved in the repair of specific types of errors that occur during new DNA synthesis; loss of this system leads to an accelerated accumulation of potential mutations, and predisposes to certain types of cancers. Germline mutations in some of the DNA MMR genes cause the hereditary cancer predisposition, Lynch syndrome. This review addresses advances in the biochemistry of DNA MMR and its relationship to carcinogenesis.