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The stroma of carcinomas shares several characteristics with inflamed tissues including a distorted vasculature, active angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. In addition, the tumor interstitial fluid pressure (PIF) of the stroma is pathologically elevated. We show here that bevacizumab [rhuMab vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Avastin], a monoclonal antibody to VEGF, at a dose of 5 mg/kg modulated inflammation in KAT-4 xenograft human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma tissue. At this dose, bevacizumab reduced the density of macrophages, MHC class II antigen expression by macrophages and IL-1β mRNA expression. Furthermore, bevacizumab lowered tumor extracellular fluid volume, plasma protein leakage from tumor vessels, the number of CD31-positive structures and tumorPIF. The tumor plasma volume and the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive vessels, however, remained unchanged. Our data suggest that carcinoma cell-derived VEGF either directly or indirectly participates in maintaining an inflammatory microenvironment in experimental KAT-4 carcinoma. Furthermore, our data indicate that the reduction of inflammation resulting in reduced vascular permeability and decrease in the tumor extracellular fluid volume by bevacizumab contributes to reduced tumorPIF.