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To evaluate the association between dietary mushroom intake and breast cancer risk, a total of 362 women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who were histologically confirmed to have breast cancer were matched to controls by age (±2 years) and menopausal status. Mushroom intake was measuredviaa food frequency questionnaire that was administered by well-trained interviewers. The associations between the daily intake and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms with breast cancer risk were evaluated using matched data analysis. Both the daily intake (5thvs. 1st quintile, OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30–0.78,pfor trend 0.030) and the average consumption frequency of mushrooms (4thvs. 1st quartile, OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.35–0.82,pfor trend 0.008) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk after adjustment for education, family history of breast cancer, regular exercise [≥22.5 MET (metabolic equivalent)-hr/week], BMI (body mass index, Kg/m2), number of children and whether they are currently smoking, drinking or using multivitamin supplements. Further adjustments were made for energy-adjusted carbohydrate, soy protein, folate and vitamin E levels, which tended to attenuate these results. After a stratification was performed according to menopausal status, a strong inverse association was found in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04–0.54,pfor trend = 0.0058 for daily intake; OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.05–0.54,pfor trend = 0.0037 for average frequency), but not in premenopausal women. In conclusion, the consumption of dietary mushrooms may decrease breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.