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Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for lung and upper-aerodigestive-tract (UADT) cancers. One possible mechanism for the associations may be through DNA damage pathways. DNA Ligase I (LIG1) is a DNA repair gene involved in both the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the base excision repair (BER) pathways. We examined the association of 4LIG1polymorphisms with lung and UADT cancers, and their potential interactions with smoking in a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County. We performed genotyping using the SNPlex method from Applied Biosystems. Logistic regression analyses of 551 lung cancer cases, 489 UADT cancer cases and 948 controls showed the expected associations of tobacco smoking with lung and UADT cancers and new associations between theLIG1haplotypes and these cancers. For lung cancer, when compared to the most common haplotype (rs20581-rs20580-rs20579-rs439132 = T-C-C-A), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) is 1.2 (95% confidence limits (CL) = 0.95, 1.5) for the CACA haplotype, 1.4 (1.0, 1.9) for the CATA haplotype and 1.8 (1.1, 2.8) for the CCCG haplotype, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education and tobacco smoking. We observed weaker associations between theLIG1haplotypes and UADT cancers. Our findings suggest theLIG1haplotypes may affect the risk of lung and UADT cancers.