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The correlation between low serum PG level and H. pylori infection with the development of gastric cancer has caused considerable concerns all over the world. Some authors exclaimed that gastric cancer developed only in patients infected with H. pylori, whereas the other had different findings. In this study, 1,501 adult local residents with determined serum PG levels and anti H. pylori IgG status were followed for 14 years for the development of gastric cancer in a rural community with high risk of gastric cancer in Hebei Province, China. The results showed the accumulated gastric cancer incidence in the subjects with abnormal PG level and those with H. pylori infection were all significantly higher than that in the corresponding normal controls (53.9‰ vs. 12.7‰, p < 0.05 and 23.1‰ vs. 5.93‰, p < 0.05). The highest gastric cancer incidence was seen in the subjects with both abnormal serum PG and positive H. pylori (56.0‰), and followed by the subjects with abnormal PG and negative H. pylori (47.6‰) and those with normal serum PG and positive H. pylori (18.4‰). The abnormal serum PG level (OR 3.029) and H. pylori infection (OR 4.345) were all risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. The results suggested that the subjects with abnormal serum PG level and/or positive H. pylori infection in the rural area of China were all high risk population for gastric carcinoma and the subjects with both abnormal serum PG and positive H. pylori infection were at especially high risk for the development of gastric carcinoma.