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Background: Accurate localization and sizing of a myocardial infarction are necessary for clinical decision making and even more in research. Gd-Mesoporphyrin enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently shown to specifically delineate necrosis in liver tumors, renal and muscle necrosis and myocardial infarction in rats. In this study, we investigated this technique's potential to accurately delineate myocardial infarction in a larger animal species, the dog. Methods: Myocardial infarction was induced in 8 dogs by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, 4 of which were reperfused after 3 hr. Gd-Mesoporphyrin (0.05 mmol/kg) was injected intravenously 210 min after the onset of ischemia (n = 6) or after 24 hr in 2 dogs with non-reperfused infarctions. MRI was performed 10 hr. after administration of Gd-Mesoporphyrin. In vivo MRI consisted of EKG-triggered, respiratory gated T1-weighted spin echo and segmented turboFLASH long and short axis measurements. Post-mortem, a spin echo short axis measurement was repeated. Infarct size was determined planimetrically by TTC staining of left ventricular slices. Results: In all instances, there was a very close qualitative agreement between the MRI and TTC defined myocardial infarction. Quantitatively, the linear regression from post-mortem MRI to TTC determined infarct size yielded a result very close to the line of identity (regression coefficient: 0.980 ± 0.026, p<0.000001, adjusted R2= 0.964). Conclusion: We conclude that Gd-Mesoporphyrin enhanced MRI is a promising tool for the accurate delineation of myocardial infarction.