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There have been reports concerning an association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and autoimmune and rheumatic diseases.The purpose of this study was to examine autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations in HIV-infected patients and their correlation with antinuclear antibody (ANA) tests.The clinical and laboratory results of HIV-infected patients attending the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from February 1999 to January 2000, were analyzed. Laboratory studies included serum CD4 lymphocyte count and ANA tests.Sixty-two patients were enrolled prospectively in the study. Myalgia was the most common clinical presentation (50%). Others included photosensitivity (on history) (39%), arthralgia (26%), vasculitis (18%), sicca complex (10%), arthritis (7%), and Reiter's syndrome (2%). A history of hair loss was given by 23% of patients. A positive ANA test was detected in 3%. No cases of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or dermatomyositis were seen.Autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations were not uncommonly detected in patients with HIV infection. HIV infection may sometimes mimic systemic lupus erythematosus clinically.