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Condyloma acuminatum is one of the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted diseases. HNP1 is a small antimicrobial peptide that has been reported to have antiviral activities.Using the condyloma acuminatum tissue culture to resemble the situation more closely in vivo, we investigate the therapeutic effect of a recombinant plasmid encoding HNP1 gene in condyloma acuminatum tissue.Recombinant plasmid DNA carrying HNP1 cDNA was constructed and identified. Then the recombinant plasmid was transfected into a condyloma acuminatum tissue fragment, and the HNP1 expression was determined on these tissue fragments by immunohistochemistry. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry techniques were used to examine cell apoptosis of condyloma acuminatum tissue. Relative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to validate antihuman papillomavirus therapeutics of the treatment groups.Transfected HNP1 gene was expressed mainly in the cytoplasmic granules of the condyloma acuminatum tissues. Positive apoptotic cells were observed in condyloma acuminatum tissues transfected with the HNP1 gene. In addition, the HPV expression was lower in the HNP1 treatment tissues as compared to their corresponding control tissues.The results indicate that HNP1 can directly promote condyloma acuminatum cell apoptosis and play an antivirus role in the condyloma acuminatum tissue by limiting viral replication. These observations suggest a possible application for human HNP1 on condyloma acuminatum therapy.