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To evaluate the effects of segmental vitiligo (SV) on nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in different nerves, we compared the patient's lesional side of their body to the contralateral normal side. The 106 participants were selected from outpatients visiting the dermatological clinics of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from November 2011 to March 2014. NCVs were measured on the limbs and the face, including both motor and sensory nerves. The parameters for NCVs included motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and its distal conduction latency, sensory nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve action potentials amplitude, and compound muscle action potential amplitude. MCV on the limbs was compromised by SV state, which was significantly slower on the lesional side of the body compared with the normal contralateral side (P = 0.006). Furthermore, SV at the stable stage significantly impaired MCV compared with the SV at progressive stage. There was no significant difference in the other parameters of NCV between lesional and normal sides of the body. Compound muscle action potentials in the face did not differ between lesional and healthy sides. Motor nerves in the limbs were compromised by SV, particularly when the disease was at the stable stage.