A Tunisian family with a novel mutation in the gene CYP4F22 for lamellar ichthyosis and co-occurrence of hearing loss in a child due to mutation in the SLC26A4 gene

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BackgroundCo-occurrence of two genetic diseases is challenging for accurate diagnosis and genetic counseling. The recent availability of whole exome sequencing (WES) has dramatically improved the molecular diagnosis of rare genetic diseases in particular in consanguineous populations.MethodsWe report here on a consanguineous family from Southern Tunisia including three members affected with congenital ichthyosis. The index case had a hearing loss (HL) and ichthyosis and was primarily suspected as suffering from keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. WES was performed for the index case, and all members of the nuclear family were sequenced (Sanger method).ResultsThe WES approach allowed the identification of two strong candidate variants in two different genes; a missense mutation c.1334T>G (p.Leu445Trp) in exon 11 of SLC26A4 gene, associated with isolated HL and a novel missense mutation c.728G>T (p.Arg243Leu) in exon 8 of CYP4F22 gene likely responsible for ichthyosis. These two mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by three pathogenicity prediction softwares (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform [SIFT], Polymorphism Phenotyping [PolyPhen], Mutation Taster) to underlie the HL and ichthyosis, respectively.ConclusionsThe present study raises awareness about the importance of familial history for accurate diagnosis of syndromic genetic diseases and differential diagnosis with co-occurrence of two distinct clinical entities. In addition, in countries with limited resources, WES sequencing for a single individual provides a cost effective tool for molecular diagnosis confirmation and genetic counseling.

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