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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term oral L-arginine treatment on platelet NO production, intracellular calcium concentration, iNOS and eNOS expression, in AN patients.Forty outpatients belonging to restricting subtype and 40 normal participants age and sex matched were enrolled in the study.NO production was significantly elevated in the platelets from AN patients compared with controls while [Ca2+]i was significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Western blot analysis demonstrated that iNOS isoform was more pronounced in the cell lysates from AN patients than controls. After supplementation with L-arginine, both NO production and [Ca2+]i seem to return to control levels, suggesting a probable recovery of their metabolisms. The same was found after western blot analysis of NOS expression.The results here proposed can be considered highly indicative of a positive effect of L-arginine supplementation on platelet NO production in AN patients.