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Intracellular endocervical mucins from 45 normal uteri at different phases of the menstrual cycle, assessed by endometrial histology, have been investigated quantitatively. Both acidic and neutral mucins are produced by mucosal cells, although acidic mucin is far in excess of neutral mucin. Both acidic components undergo cyclical changes: an increase in sialoglycoproteins occurs in the periovulatory phase with a decrease in the secretory phase when sulphomucins increase. This suggests that sialoglycoprotein plays a role in the production of sperm-penetrable mucus at midcycle. Endocervical mucins adjacent to 37 examples of cervical intraepilhelial neoplasia have also been investigated. In nine cases glands immediately adjacent to the abnormal squamous epithelium showed a decrease in sulphomucins together with an increase in sialomucins when compared with others 8 mm distant. Such changes are similar to those described adjacent to colonic adenocarcinoma and may reflect a premalignant mucosa.