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Twelve cases of histologically confirmed autoimmune oophoritis are described. Eight presented with symptoms and laboratory evidence of premature ovarian failure (POF). Four were diagnosed unexpectedly after hysterectomy for endometrial pathology or for sequelae of cystic enlargement of the ovaries. Two of eight patients tested had serum anti-ovarian autoantibodies (Aab), while five of seven had anti-adrenal Aab. Two women had, or subsequently developed, Addison's disease, and two patients had Hashimoto's disease at presentation. All women with this disease risk the development of adrenal failure and hypothyroidism. Microscopically, 11 cases showed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate that spared primordial follicles but involved, with progressive intensity, early and late preovulatory follicles and corpora lutea. Sparse perivascular and perineural inflammatory infiltrates were also present. The twelfth case appeared to be a unique case of granulomatous oophoritis, considered autoimmune because of the folliculotropic nature of the inflammatory process. Three cases showed evidence of follicular dysplasia.