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Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is associated with multifoeality of VIN III and with multicentricity of other neoplastic squamous lesions in the cervix and vagina. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and type of HPV DNA in the lesions of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in patients with VIN III using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HPV DNA detection and histologic analysis were performed on alternating sections of paraffin-embedded biopsies of concomitant CIN and VaIN in 27 patients with VIN III. PCR was performed with consensus primers and HPV typing was performed by direct sequencing of the PCR amplimers. HPV DNA was detected in all VIN III lesions (93% contained HPV-16 DNA); in 96% of the CIN lesions (73% contained HPV-16 DNA); and in all VaIN lesions (75% contained HPV-16 DNA). The HPV type was not the same in 22% of the different lesions of VIN, CIN, and VaIN, even if the biopsies were taken at the same time.