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A 36-year-old woman presented with intermenstrual spotting and was found to have a cystic mass involving the uterine cervix on a pelvic ultrasound examination. A necrotic and hemorragie tumor was excised by hysterectomy and processed for light and electron microscopic investigation and molecular analysis. Microscopic examination revealed a small round cell tumor that immunohistochemical studies (including staining for the highly restricted surface antigen p30/32MIC2) and ultrastructural studies indicated was an extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). This diagnosis was established by detection of EWS/ ERG fusion transcript through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with nested primers. Full body computed tomography failed to detect any extrauterine tumor, and the patient is clinically free of disease 18 months after hysterectomy. This case represents the first report of a primary EES/PNET arising in the uterine cervix.