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The histogenesis of carcinosarcomas (malignant mullerian mixed tumors) of the female genital tract is still not completely understood. In the present study, several different molecular pathologic techniques were applied to determine the histogenesis of 15 uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas. The patterns of X-chromosome inactivation and the presence of p53 and K-ras mutations were analyzed in the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. Microsatellite analysis was also performed. Ten tumors were monoclonal, one was biclonal (collision tumor), and another was probably biclonal; the other three were of indeterminate histogenesis. These data indicate that most uterine and ovarian carcinosarcomas are monoclonal.