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A 62-year-old woman with a history of breast carcinoma being treated with tamoxifen presented with a rapidly enlarging pelvic mass. Imaging studies suggested a uterine leiomyoma with possible sarcomatous transformation. Laparotomy revealed a 15-cm, oval, well-circumscribed mass emanating from the posterior cervix and left uterosacral ligament. The tumor had a variegated fleshy, tan, myxoid, and necrotic sectioned surface. Microscopic examination revealed a variety of patterns and cell types characteristic of liposarcoma that included myxoid/round cell, storiform/pleomorphic, epithelioid, and spindle cell areas. Lipogenic areas exhibited a “crow's feet” vasculature and characteristic lipoblasts. The tumor cells were highly pleomorphic with numerous mitotic figures, some of them atypical. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, estrogen receptors, and S-100. The tumor recurred 9 months postoperatively. Although a variety of uterine tumors have been associated with tamoxifen treatment, this appears to be the first example of tamoxifen-associated uterine liposarcoma.