Caring for women globally: Psychometric testing of two instruments translated into five languages for use in cardiovascular recovery

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Among women, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. After experiencing an acute cardiovascular event, a woman's physical health, the prevalence of morbidities, likelihood of being treated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery, likelihood for referral for cardiac rehabilitation are less favourable than men. The social support resources of marginality and religiousness are associated with physical and mental health outcomes following cardiovascular crises. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the translated versions (Japanese, Ukrainian, Tagalog, Hispanic and Arabic) of the Koci Marginality Index and the Duke University Religion Index among 282 women (aged 35–92 years) representing seven cultures. Results showed that reliability and validity were strong (coefficient alpha of 0.79 and 0.84). Understanding a woman's social isolation and whether she has a connection to religious groups assists health-care professionals to identify a woman's social support resources during recovery following acute cardiovascular episodes.

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