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There is increasing global evidence that today's work environment results in higher risk of adverse health among nursing staff than among other professions.To investigate self-reported general and mental health among Iranian nursing staff, and associations with organizational, physical and psychosocial working conditions and family situation.520 nursing personnel from 10 university hospitals in Tehran participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using a validated questionnaire in the Persian language, containing the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, physical items from the Nurse Early eXit Study and two scales relating to general health and mental health from the Short Form-36. The Chi-square test with P < 0.05 and logistic regression were used to analyse data.Three out of four nursing staff reported overtime work. The self-reported general and mental health rates of participants were poor/fair (38%, 41%), good (44%, 39%) and very good/excellent (18%, 20%), respectively. Family demands were associated with general health but were not associated with mental health. Adverse physical and psychosocial work conditions gave an elevated odds ratio for poor health.Poor general and mental health was associated with adverse working conditions and family demands. Physical and psychosocial working conditions of nursing personnel should be improved. Social facilities such as daycare for children and care for the elderly should be available during work shifts to help Iranian nurses play their family roles.