Hemolysate-filled polyethyleneimine and polyurea microcapsules as potential red blood cell substitutes: effect of aqueous monomer type on properties of the prepared microcapsules

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of rabbit hemolysate-filled polyethyleneimine (PEI)- or polyurea (PU)-type artificial red blood cells (ARBCs) with different membrane compositions. These microcapsules were prepared by making use of the interfacial polymerization (IP) reaction between the water-soluble amine monomers (triethylamine (TEA), ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N′-tetraacetic acid (EGATA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), tetramethyl diaminomethane (TMDAM), piperazine hexahydrate (PPHH), l-lysine monohydrochloride (LLMH) or PEI) and 2,4-toluylene diisocyanate (TDI) as an oil-soluble shell monomer. The resultant microcapsules were spherical and with mean diameters of 8.71–63.33 μm. Microcapsules having sulfonic acid groups on their surfaces were prepared by using a combination of the functional amines (DETA, LLMH or PEI) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DASSA). Oxygen-binding abilities of the ARBCs were measured by a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The obtained results revealed that the highest oxygen-binding abilities were obtained with the PU-ARBCs prepared with DETA alone or in combination with EGATA. Unfortunately, these microcapsules exhibited large diameters and wider size distribution curves (span values (S)=1.3, 1.7, geometric standard deviation (σg)=1.85, 2.18, respectively). However, the novel ARBCs (sulfonated PU-PEI graft copolymer membrane microcapsules (SPU/PEI-ARBCs)) prepared had good oxygen affinity, the smallest mean diameter (d=8.71 μm) and the best distribution (S=0.9, σg=1.48) and a flow behavior identical to rabbit RBCs. Therefore, these unique microcapsules can be recommended for scale-up considerations as a promising blood substitute.

    loading  Loading Related Articles