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Dispersions of insulin poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were obtained by anionic in situ polymerization using aqueous pluronic acid solution. Results showed a decrease in particle size diameter by increasing the pluronic acid concentration. Nanoparticles prepared in the presence of 2.5% pluronic acid resulted in particles of 85 nm average diameter and 59% intra-particular insulin load without the use of the oily core [Damge, C., Michel, M., Aprahamian, M., Couveur, P., 1988. New approach for oral administration with polycyanoacrylate nanocapsules as drug carrier. Diabetes 37, 246–251]. In vivo testing was performed on streptozocin induced diabetic rats. The subcutaneous injection of insulin nanoparticles was able to prolong its duration of hypoglycemic effect from 6 to 72 h. Effective oral absorption of the entrapped insulin was significantly better (p < 0.01) when compared with non-encapsulated insulin or the control experiments.