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Substantial advances have been made in the fundamental understanding of human biology, ranging from DNA structure to identification of diseases associated with genetic abnormalities. Genome sequence information is becoming available in unprecedented amounts. The absence of a direct functional correlation between gene transcripts and their corresponding proteins, however, represents a significant roadblock for improving the efficiency of biological discoveries. The success of proteomics depends on the ability to identify and analyze protein products in a cell or tissue and, this is reliant on the application of several key technologies. Proteomics is in its exponential growth phase. Two-dimensional electrophoresis complemented with mass spectrometry provides a global view of the state of the proteins from the sample. Proteins identification is a requirement to understand their functional diversity. Subtle difference in protein structure and function can contribute to complexity and diversity of life. This review focuses on the progress and the applications of proteomics science with special reference to integration of the evolving technologies involved to address biological questions.