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In a previous study, we have shown that cidofovir (CDV) and azidothymidine-triphosphate (AZT-TP) were poorly encapsulated in poly(iso-butylcyanoacrylate) (PIBCA) aqueous-core nanocapsules. This was attributed to the rapid leakage of these small and hydrophilic molecules through the thin polymer wall of the nanocapsules. In the present study, we have selected various water-soluble polymers as increasing Mw adjuvants and investigated their influence on the entrapment of mononucleotides (CDV, AZT-TP) as well as of oligonucleotides (ODN) into these PIBCA aqueous-core nanocapsules. We show here that the presence of cationic polymers (i.e. poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) or chitosan) in the nanocapsule aqueous compartment allowed successful encapsulation of AZT-TP and ODN.