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The interactions between cationic liposomal formulations (PC:Chol:DOTAP 3:4:3) and 23 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were tested. The study was undertaken because different antimicrobial results had been obtained by the authors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and liposomal antibiotics (Drulis-Kawa, Z., Gubernator, J., Dorotkiewicz-Jach, A., Doroszkiewicz, W., Kozubek, A., 2006. The comparison of in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomes containing meropenem and gentamicin. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett., 11, 360–375; Drulis-Kawa, Z., Gubernator, J., Dorotkiewicz-Jach, A., Doroszkiewicz W., Kozubek, A., 2006. In vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Int. J. Pharm., 315, 59–66). The experiments evaluate the roles of the bacterial outer-membrane structure, especially outer-membrane proteins and LPS, and envelope properties (hydrophobicity and electrostatic potential) in the interactions/fusion process between cells and lipid vesicles. The interactions were examined by fluorescent microscopy using PE-rhodamine-labelled liposomes. Some of the strains exhibited red-light emission (fusion with vesicles or vesicles surrounding the cell) and some showed negative reaction (no red-light emission). The main aim of the study was to determine what kinds of bacterial structure or envelope properties have a major influence on the fusion process. Negatively charged cells and hydrophobic properties promote interaction with cationic lipid vesicles, but no specific correlation was noted for the tested strains. A similar situation concerned LPS structure, where parent strains and their mutants possessing identical ladder-like band patterns in SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited totally different results with fluorescent microscopy. Outer-membrane protein analysis showed that an 18-kDA protein occurred in the isolates showing fusion with rhodamine-labelled vesicles and, conversely, strains lacking the 18-kDA protein exhibited no positive reaction (red emission). This suggests that even one protein may be responsible for favouring stronger interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells and cationic liposomal formulations (PC:Chol:DOTAP 3:4:3).