Preparation and characterization of dextran nanobubbles for oxygen delivery

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Dextran nanobubbles were prepared with a dextran shell and a perfluoropentan core in which oxygen was stored. To increase the stability polyvinylpirrolidone was also added to the formulation as stabilizing agent. Rhodamine B was used as fluorescent marker to obtain fluorescent nanobubbles. The nanobubble formulations showed sizes of about 500 nm, a negative surface charge and a good capacity of loading oxygen, no hemolytic activity or toxic effect on cell lines. The fluorescent labelled nanobubbles could be internalized in Vero cells. Oxygen-filled nanobubbles were able to release oxygen in different hypoxic solutions at different time after their preparation in in vitro experiments. The oxygen release kinetics could be enhanced after nanobubble insonation with ultrasound at 2.5 MHz. The oxygen-filled nanobubble formulations might be proposed for therapeutic applications in various diseases.

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