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Nanofibrous implants containing quaternized chitosan (QCh), poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (coPLA), and the antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX) were fabricated by electrospinning. The surface chemical composition and the morphology of the implants were characterized by XPS and SEM. In vitro cell viability studies demonstrated that QCh- and DOX-based implants exhibited high cytotoxicity against Graffi tumor cells. The implants efficiently inhibited the growth of Graffi tumor in hamsters with minimum weight loss. Insertion of QCh/coPLA/DOX implants in the place of removed tumor led to an increase in the animal survival rate and to a decrease in the percentage of recurrences.