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Nanofibrous polylactide-based materials loaded with a natural polyphenolic compound gossypol (GOS) with antitumor properties were prepared by electrospinning. The nanofibrous materials were coated with a thin film of crosslinked quaternized chitosan (QCh). GOS incorporated in the nanofibrous mats was in the amorphous state. GOS release was diffusion-controlled and its in vitro release profiles depended on the mat composition. The nanofibrous materials exhibited high cytotoxicity towards HeLa tumor cells. Interestingly, it was particularly pronounced in the case of fibrous materials, which contain both QCh and GOS. The observed strong antiproliferative effect of the nanofibrous mats was mainly due to induction of cell apoptosis.