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Diabetes is a metabolic disease and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in epidemic proportions. A type I diabetic patient is dependent on daily injections of insulin, for survival and also to maintain a normal life, which is uncomfortable, painful and also has deleterious effects. Extensive efforts are being made worldwide for developing noninvasive drug delivery systems, especially via oral route. Oral route is the most widely accepted means of administration. However it is not feasible for direct delivery of peptide and protein drugs. To overcome the gastro-intestinal barriers various types of formulations such as polymeric micro/nanoparticles, liposomes, etc. are investigated. In the recent years lot of advances have taken place in developing and understanding the oral peptide delivery systems. Simultaneously, the development and usage of other peptides having anti-diabetic potentials are also considered for diabetes therapy. In this review we are focusing on the advances reported during the past decade in the field of oral insulin delivery along with the possibility of other peptidic incretin hormones such as GLP-1, exendin-4, for diabetes therapy.