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Vaccination is undoubtedly the most effective health intervention for disease prevention and eradication. Nevertheless, currently there is still a need for improving immunization coverage worldwide. A promising strategy to achieve this goal nowadays relies on the use of delivery carriers capable of inducing an effective immune response and providing improved stability, safety and cost effectiveness. This article focuses on analyzing the critical aspects in the design of these carriers, and reviewing the state of the art of currently marketed formulations and those in advanced clinical development. These vaccine delivery carriers include emulsions, liposomes and polymeric particulate carriers. Finally, particular attention is given to the evolution in the design of polymeric nanocarriers, which have been receiving increasing attention and hold promise to generate novel platforms for needle-free administration and single-dose vaccination.