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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of self-nano-emulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) in improving the bioavailability of docetaxel (DCT) and its chemotherapeutic effect. The DCT-loaded SNEDDS was prepared by employing rational blends of capryol 90, labrasol, and transcutol HP using ternary phase diagram. The liquid nano-emulsion was spray-dried into solid SNEDDS (D-SNEDDS) using an inert porous carrier, colloidal silica. The optimized formulation was characterized in terms of physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. Furthermore, anti-tumor efficacy of D-SNEDDS was compared with commercial marketed product, Taxotere®. The various compositions of SNEDDS were screened and found optimal at a volume ratio of 10/75/15 for capryol 90, labrasol, and transcutol HP, respectively. We observed a high oral bioavailability of 17% DCT for D-SNEDDS than compared to only 2.6% for pure DCT solution. Notably, D-SNEDDS exhibited an augmented anti-tumor efficacy with a reduced toxicity profile when compared with intravenously administered Taxotere®, the commercialized formulation of DCT. Taken together, D-SNEDDS could be a potential candidate for an oral dosage form of DCT with enhanced antitumor activity and reduced toxicity.