Probing influence of methodological variation on active loading of acetazolamide into nanoliposomes: Biophysical, in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo and rheological investigation

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Graphical abstractIn the present work comparative evaluation of acetate and pH gradient techniques for effective drug loading in liposomes has been investigated. The acetazolamide (ACZ) loaded liposomes prepared by two methods were analyzed by vesicle size analysis, zeta potential, percent encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release studies and intraocular pressure lowering activity. ICH guidelines were followed for determining stability of the prepared liposomes. The superiority of acetate gradient method for active loading of acetazolamide has been established. The prepared acetate gradient positive liposomes showed extended hypotensive effect when compared to other liposomal formulations. Thus ACZ loaded liposomes prepared by acetate gradient technique may serve as promising ocular delivery system in the treatment of glaucoma. The current work emphasizes the fact that the techniques used for active drug loading into liposomes strongly influence the pharmaceutical performance of the final formulation.

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