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Cationic biomimetic exosomes were prepared using a novel micro-emulsion and micelle assembling method by introducing DEC205 monoclonal antibody as specific ligand to target dendritic cells (DCs). The Box–Behnken experimental design was applied for optimization of nanoliposomes (NLip) and DEC205 monoclonal antibody was then conjugated on the surface of NLip (DEC205-NLip). NLip and DEC205-NLip respectively had an average size of 62.7 ± 6.33 nm and 81.64 ± 4.25 nm, zeta potential of +30.5 ± 2.3 mV and +19.8 ± 1.8 mV and encapsulation efficiency of 91.02 ± 3.1% and 93.10 ± 2.2%. In addition, the toxicity studies confirmed DEC205 monoclonal antibody could significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the cationic lipid against DCs. And the cellular uptake experiment evaluated the significant targeting effect of the DEC205 monoclonal antibody on DC cells. In conclusion, the novel method presented here to prepare biomimetic exosomes was an efficient approach to develop antigen carriers for specific DCs targeting.